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Blogue de Alterne

Blogue de Alterne

...

Janeiro 14, 2019

Pedro Vorph

"Obviously our brains are not perfectly shaped for living in urban environments" - German researcher and clinician, Dr Mazda Adli

 

Pt 2:

Vive-se, ou Sobrevive-se na "Cidade"? Eis a questão!

É-se mais no "Campo" e tem-se mais na "Cidade"?

Cada um que escolha conforme a prioridade da sua consciência, ou da sua carteira.

Para concluir, só um acrescento histórico. Segundo a Bíblia, a primeira Cidade teria sido fundada por Caim dando-lhe, este, o nome de Nod.

 

Deixo aqui alguns estudos interessantes, sobre o tema.

 

City living affects your brain, researchers find:

The results, published in Nature (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10190), showed that the amygdala of participants who currently live in cities was over-active during stressful situations. "We know what the amygdala does; it's the danger-sensor of the brain and is therefore linked to anxiety and depression," said Meyer-Lindenberg.
Another region called the cingulate cortex was overactive in participants who were born in cities. "We know ,the cingulate cortex is important for controlling emotion and dealing with environmental adversity."
This excess activity could be at the root of the observed mental health problems, said Meyer-Lindenberg. "We speculate that stress might cause these abnormalities in the first place – that speculation lies outside what we can show in our study, it is primarily based on the fact that this specific brain area is very sensitive to developmental stress. If you stress an animal, you will find even structural abnormalities in that area and those may be enduring and make an animal anxious. What we're proposing is that stress causes these things and stress is where they are expressed and then lead to an increased risk of mental illness."

 

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/feb/25/city-stress-mental-health-rural-kind

 

Para os mais interessados:

http://www.gwern.net/docs/nature/2010-peen.pdf

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02225.x

 

Por último, deixo aqui a conclusão de um importante estudo (abrir o link indicado) que analisa, estatisticamente, a incidência nas populações citadinas e rurais, das neoplasias malignas (cancro) mais comuns, controlando a importante variável que é o Nível Socioeconómico (NSE) (importante porque, quanto mais baixo for o NSE maiores as probabilidades de ocorrência de qualquer tipo de doença). O estudo conclui que, para um mesmo NSE, existe uma maior incidência, de vários tipos de cancro, nas populações citadinas, do que nas populações rurais.

 

Risk of Several Cancers is Higher in Urban Areas after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status. Results from a Two-Country Population-Based Study of 18 Common Cancers.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074316/

 

"During 1995–2007, there were striking urban–rural variations in the incidence of 12 of 18 of the most common cancers in Ireland; these were evident after adjusting for various markers of socioeconomic status. For one cancer—prostate—risk was higher in people resident in rural areas, an association likely to be driven by geographical variations in PSA testing and prostate biopsy. For the remaining 11 sites—which comprised a mixture of cancers positively and negatively associated with socioeconomic status—risk was significantly higher in people residing in urban areas. For some cancers, these raised risks are likely to be explained by variations in healthcare utilization and known risk factors, most notably smoking and HPV infection. For others, there are no obvious explanations and, in the interests of greater equity, further investigation is warranted."

 

Nota:

 

"For others, there are no obvious explanations and, in the interests of greater equity, further investigation is warranted."

 

Arriscaria a apontar o stress crónico, mas também a poluição, e a alimentação (os alimentos processados/"refeições preparadas", com os seus aditivos/conservantes) como importantes factores de risco a ter em conta (ver a sugestão de leitura, para hoje).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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